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Swamp_Yankee

Small pond management?

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12 hours ago, Kype said:

trout like cold moving water not ponds. even if your pond doesnt reach 70 degrees it still may not hold trout. but its looking good. may want to just stock cats and bass.

Uh, half of my business is building trout ponds.....  :) 

Trout do fine in ponds so long as there is enough DO and cool enough temps in summer.  Since his pond is spring fed, it may hold trout.  I know a spring fed pond in Bethlehem Twp. in Hunterdon that has brook trout that not only live in the pond year round, but spawn in it and it is only about 7' deep at the max depth.  

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13 hours ago, Swamp_Yankee said:

Going to see how much I can do without aeration for now.  Don't really want to run 100+ yards of electric or airline.  As far as moving water I'm thinking about diverting two of the small springs that drain into the pond into one pipe so that they trickle into the pond and aerate it a bit.  Stocked 2,000 Fathead Minnows today courtesy of Musky Trout Hatchery in Asbury right on the banks of the mighty Musconetcong.  The minnows will forage the muck, leeches and insects, reproduce and establish themselves at the base of the food chain.  My little freshwater fisheries biologists will continue to monitor water conditions through the summer so that we can best determine what species to stock in late summer early fall. Since our pond is blessed with shade from the southern sun and an ample supply of groundwater we may be able to sustain trout if our bottom water temperatures don't exceed 70°F through the end of August according to the guys at Musky:

If you want to build up the one bank, deepening the pond and using that material once it dries will serve two purposes, deepening the pond and giving you the soils you need to build banks.  If you go that route, hold off on additional stockings.  The fatheads will be fine if dredged.  Bass, sunfish and trout maybe not so much.  If you put those small springs into a pipe or pipes, see if you can perch them over a deeper section and they will cascade into the pond, bringing in addition DO if that is a concern.  

 

13 hours ago, Swamp_Yankee said:


Cut down all of the vegetation on the south and east banks today-the long term plan is to put down geotextile fabric and cover it with the same type of rock I used for my firepit project:

The key to a pond's health is to create a "living edge" with native rush and sedges.  These plants help oxygenate the water, provide macro invertebrate and juvenile fish habitat, and combat invasive algae.  Those plants are available locally and are easily planted.  The time to build wetland benches is if/when you dredge the pond.    

 

Still more to do here-I quit weedwhacking when a thunderstorm came rolling through-I took these photos.   after it passed.  The storm was good timing though as it flushed a lot of the crap that fell into the water down the overflow pipe before it could sink and become muck:

 

One thing I'm seriously thinking about is trying to build up the bank on the south side, which is the lowest.  I think that the pond has enough groundwater flow that if the bank were raised a foot along with the overflow pipe that I could raise the water level a foot which could help with temperature.  

See my comments in blue above.  I'm happy to offer free advice to those on NJWW.  It can get very expensive fast if you hire someone like my firm to build you a pond, so I'm more than happy to instruct from afar or even to swing by ponds not far away from me and offer more ideas.   

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I want to build a small windmill to circulate oxygen in my minnow tub....maybe u can build something similar to use wind action to stimulate pond for oxygen??

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On 7/11/2018 at 9:13 PM, Swamp_Yankee said:

Lots of good ideas here-thanks all.  I have so many other projects around here I may not do much with the pond this year, but I've got a lot more knowledge than I started with for sure.  I figure I have a few options.  One would be to draw it down in late summer/early fall by removing the vertical portion of the drain pipe which would drop the water level by 3'.  This way I could easily rake out the muck and pull/rake the vegetation.  Then at least I'd be starting fresh once it filled back up and I could go with a fish that will tolerate low DO like a brown bullhead catfish.

Have you considered installing a water control structure?

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On 6/28/2020 at 10:44 AM, Bucksnbows said:

If you want to build up the one bank, deepening the pond and using that material once it dries will serve two purposes, deepening the pond and giving you the soils you need to build banks.  If you go that route, hold off on additional stockings.  The fatheads will be fine if dredged.  Bass, sunfish and trout maybe not so much.  If you put those small springs into a pipe or pipes, see if you can perch them over a deeper section and they will cascade into the pond, bringing in addition DO if that is a concern...The key to a pond's health is to create a "living edge" with native rush and sedges.  These plants help oxygenate the water, provide macro invertebrate and juvenile fish habitat, and combat invasive algae.  Those plants are available locally and are easily planted.  The time to build wetland benches is if/when you dredge the pond.    

I'm definitely going to try to pipe all of the springs into one pipe.  I've basically identified three spots where the water seeps out of the hillside and meanders toward the pond.  If I can get at the source I'll direct it into black corrugated drainpipe to some kind of junction box or fitting and then run it out to the pond.  Hopefully all three combined will make for a nice flow that will help to dissolve more oxygen.  As for the wetland benches I kind of have some where you see the bright green grass (not sure what it is) growing directly out of the water on the north and east shores of the pond.  It's very shallow and soft in those areas and then it drops off to about 4'.  I could definitely plant more in those areas.

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2 hours ago, Swamp_Yankee said:

I'm definitely going to try to pipe all of the springs into one pipe.  I've basically identified three spots where the water seeps out of the hillside and meanders toward the pond.  If I can get at the source I'll direct it into black corrugated drainpipe to some kind of junction box or fitting and then run it out to the pond.  Hopefully all three combined will make for a nice flow that will help to dissolve more oxygen.  As for the wetland benches I kind of have some where you see the bright green grass (not sure what it is) growing directly out of the water on the north and east shores of the pond.  It's very shallow and soft in those areas and then it drops off to about 4'.  I could definitely plant more in those areas.

The "grass" looks like sedge to me, but I can't expand the photo enough to properly ID it.  But that is native and what you want for aquatic growth.  I'm not seeing filamentous algae which is key to a clean pond (not having it, that is).  Some algae is normal, but you don't want your pond overrun with it.  Barley pellets thrown directly on it is the answer if that becomes an issue.   

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5 minutes ago, Bucksnbows said:

filamentous algae

Is that what you call it? Learn something new every day.

I always thought the technical term was "snot grass" -- I'll be sure to tell my buddy next time we are fishing... "Oh, no! Gonna be tough fishing today -  Filamentous algae!":D

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13 minutes ago, Bucksnbows said:

The "grass" looks like sedge to me, but I can't expand the photo enough to properly ID it.  But that is native and what you want for aquatic growth.  I'm not seeing filamentous algae which is key to a clean pond (not having it, that is).  Some algae is normal, but you don't want your pond overrun with it.  Barley pellets thrown directly on it is the answer if that becomes an issue.   

We've never really had an algae problem, which is probably due to the ample shade and the fact that it's spring fed.  The shade is a double edged sword though-lots of junk falling into the pond all the time.  

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20 hours ago, Swamp_Yankee said:

I'm definitely going to try to pipe all of the springs into one pipe.  I've basically identified three spots where the water seeps out of the hillside and meanders toward the pond.  If I can get at the source I'll direct it into black corrugated drainpipe to some kind of junction box or fitting and then run it out to the pond.  Hopefully all three combined will make for a nice flow that will help to dissolve more oxygen.  As for the wetland benches I kind of have some where you see the bright green grass (not sure what it is) growing directly out of the water on the north and east shores of the pond.  It's very shallow and soft in those areas and then it drops off to about 4'.  I could definitely plant more in those areas.

Lots of good info here-going to do some exploratory digging later this week before we leave for Greenwood Lake for the 4th.  I think what I have is more of a "seep" than a spring based on these descriptions.  The water just seems to appear out of the side of a small down slope headed toward the pond.  That said, I've never seen the water stop running, so there should be ample supply:

https://extension.psu.edu/spring-development-and-protection

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18 minutes ago, Swamp_Yankee said:

Lots of good info here-going to do some exploratory digging later this week before we leave for Greenwood Lake for the 4th.  I think what I have is more of a "seep" than a spring based on these descriptions.  The water just seems to appear out of the side of a small down slope headed toward the pond.  That said, I've never seen the water stop running, so there should be ample supply:

https://extension.psu.edu/spring-development-and-protection

Your property lies directly on the limestone karst belt.  So you are seeing groundater expression that we call seeps.  Limestone acts like a giant sponge to both cleanse and store groundwater.   

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On 6/30/2020 at 9:31 AM, Bucksnbows said:

Your property lies directly on the limestone karst belt.  So you are seeing groundater expression that we call seeps.  Limestone acts like a giant sponge to both cleanse and store groundwater.   

Found the origin of one of the seeps yesterday:

20200701_171550.thumb.jpg.5a2348468ad63ed1bf436521628f2979.jpg

Going to dig it back some today and try to increase the flow.  From there I'll build a collection box and pipe it down to the pond.  There is at least one more coming out of the hillside that I still need to locate.  Ideally I'll pipe them together so that I get a nice cascade from the outfall.

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2 hours ago, Swamp_Yankee said:

Found the origin of one of the seeps yesterday:

20200701_171550.thumb.jpg.5a2348468ad63ed1bf436521628f2979.jpg

Going to dig it back some today and try to increase the flow.  From there I'll build a collection box and pipe it down to the pond.  There is at least one more coming out of the hillside that I still need to locate.  Ideally I'll pipe them together so that I get a nice cascade from the outfall.

Yup, that's one for certain.  Seeps, or groundwater expression, are typically in the 51F range and will warm your pond in winter and cool it in summer.  You have the start of a decent pond!   

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Did a little digging this morning.  More prying out rocks with a shale bar than digging, but in any event I'm starting to enlarge seepage area.  I've got a lot more to do though-I figure in order to develop a good flow I'm probably going to have to expose about 3' of the hillside maybe six feet wide and then dry stack stones (its mostly stone anyway) up against where I cut into the hill.  Then I'll build three walls that enclose it and run a pipe out of it at a height where I get a good flow.  I'm not sure of the temperature but I would call it "uncomfortably cold!"  Hopefully putting it into a pipe and keeping the pipe covered with rock, etc...will keep it colder before it hits the pond.  I've been getting bottom temps of around 72°F lately so anything I can do to get that down would be good:

SMRsrQtl.jpg

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1 hour ago, Swamp_Yankee said:

Did a little digging this morning.  More prying out rocks with a shale bar than digging, but in any event I'm starting to enlarge seepage area.  I've got a lot more to do though-I figure in order to develop a good flow I'm probably going to have to expose about 3' of the hillside maybe six feet wide and then dry stack stones (its mostly stone anyway) up against where I cut into the hill.  Then I'll build three walls that enclose it and run a pipe out of it at a height where I get a good flow.  I'm not sure of the temperature but I would call it "uncomfortably cold!"  Hopefully putting it into a pipe and keeping the pipe covered with rock, etc...will keep it colder before it hits the pond.  I've been getting bottom temps of around 72°F lately so anything I can do to get that down would be good:

SMRsrQtl.jpg

Neat!!

Maybe build a small roof system over that seep....keep it in cool shade ....n may prevent leaves n debris from falling in n clogging up pipe.  Small fencing around it so leaves don't blow in.....and.... Maybe wire mesh pipe end too so it doesn't get jammed up

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1 hour ago, Bonefreak said:

Maybe build a small roof system over that seep....keep it in cool shade ....n may prevent leaves n debris from falling in n clogging up pipe.  Small fencing around it so leaves don't blow in.....and.... Maybe wire mesh pipe end too so it doesn't get jammed up

That's the basic idea-it will end up looking something like this:

Screenshot_20200702-170159_Chrome.jpg.c42a3c5d3c04e2119a62cfdbcbbc8291.jpg

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